Land locked country of East Africa bordered by Sudan on the N, and clockwise by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwand a, and the Congo. Uganda’s early history is only vaguely known, but it appears that a Bantu civilization ruled by Cwezi kings was overthrown by northern Luo Nilotic invaders c. a.d. 1500. The Luo became assimilated into the Bantu culture and founded the major Ugandan kingdoms of Ankole, Buganda, and Bunyoro. Buganda quickly ousted Bunyoro as the dominant state and built up a substantial governmental bureaucracy. In the late 19th century European interests in Uganda were dominated by a fierce struggle between existing Muslim interests, and Catholic and Protestant missionaries. A series of massacres and three-cornered religious wars was ended by 1893 when the British Imperial East Africa Company sent a military force to take control. That same year Great Britain assumed control from the company and by 1901 had made Ankole, Bunyoro, and Buganda British protectorates.
In 1901 Lake Victoria was reached by the Kenya- Uganda railway, and the country was opened up to commercial development. Cotton was introduced and quickly made the colony self-supporting. Much of Uganda’s land was taken by European settlers, but in the aftermath of the Great Depression of the 1930s African farmers regained control of much of the productive cropland . Coffee became the most important crop, and Buganda prospered as its major supplier.
After World War II Great Britain began to deal with the question of Ugandan nationalism. Buganda pressed for independence from the rest of Uganda, making the formation of a new country difficult. In 1962 independence was finally achieved by Uganda, with Buganda retaining semiautonomous privileges. In 1966 Prime Minister Milton Obote, the leader of the nationalist movement who became the new president, imposed a new constitution repealing Buganda’s status.
His troops quickly overcame Bugandan resistance.
In 1971 Obote was overthrown by the army, led by General Idi Amin. Amin assumed dictatorial powers and mercilessly initiated an erratic reign of terror that by 1977 had resulted in an estimated 300,000 deaths. In 1978 President Nyerere of Tanzania invaded Uganda with the general sympathy of most of Africa.
Libya alone supported Amin, and he fled there in 1979 when Kampala, the capital, fell to Tanzanian troops. Uganda’s government was restored to civilian opponents of Amin’s regime. In 1980 a military coup overthrew the second civilian government to hold office in a single year. The country was devastated, the countryside depopulated, its agriculture, economic life, urban centers, and infrastructure in a shambles.
Tanzania left an occupation force in Uganda that looted Kampala. After a short time Obote returned to power and civil war followed. In the early 1980s, approximately 200,000 Ugandans sought refuge in neighboring Rwand a, Congo, and Sudan. In 1985 a military coup deposed Obote, and Lieutenant General Tito Okello became head of state. In 1986 the National Resistance Army took Kampala in 1986, and its leader, Yoweri Museveni, became the new president. He instituted a series of measures, including cutbacks in the civil service and army and privatization of state-owned companies. The economy started to recover. In 1987, former government soldiers unsuccessfully attacked the government forces.
AIDS reached epidemic proportions in the country in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Ugandan troops fought rebels based in the Sudan as well as backing rebel groups in the Congo against the Kabila regime and fighting with Rwand an forces in the Congo. A referendum on Museveni’s antipolitical party policy was affirmed and Museveni reelected in spite of reported vote fraud.
|Kampala||1,353,189||Kampala District||32.58 x 0.32||Africa/Kampala|
|Gulu||146,858||Gulu District||32.31 x 2.77||Africa/Kampala|
|Lira||119,323||Lira District||32.91 x 2.24||Africa/Kampala|
|Mbarara||97,500||Mbarara District||30.65 x-0.61||Africa/Kampala|
|Jinja||93,061||Jinja District||33.20 x 0.44||Africa/Kampala|
|Bwizibwera||79,157||Mbarara District||30.63 x-0.59||Africa/Kampala|
|Mbale||76,493||Mbale District||34.18 x 1.08||Africa/Kampala|
|Mukono||67,290||Mukono District||32.76 x 0.35||Africa/Kampala|
|Kasese||67,269||Kasese District||30.08 x 0.18||Africa/Kampala|
|Masaka||65,373||Masaka District||31.73 x-0.33||Africa/Kampala|
|Entebbe||62,969||Wakiso District||32.45 x 0.06||Africa/Kampala|
|Njeru||61,952||Mukono District||33.17 x 0.42||Africa/Kampala|
|Kitgum||56,891||Kitgum District||32.89 x 3.28||Africa/Kampala|
|Soroti||56,400||Soroti District||33.61 x 1.71||Africa/Kampala|
|Arua||55,585||Arua District||30.93 x 3.02||Africa/Kampala|
|Iganga||45,024||Iganga District||33.47 x 0.61||Africa/Kampala|
|Kabale||43,500||Kabale||29.99 x -1.25||Africa/Kampala|
|Busia||43,200||Busia District||34.08 x 0.45||Africa/Kampala|
|Fort Portal||42,670||Kabarole District||30.27 x 0.69||Africa/Kampala|
|Mityana||41,131||Mubende District||32.02 x 0.42||Africa/Kampala|
|Tororo||40,400||Tororo District||34.18 x 0.68||Africa/Kampala|
|Hoima||39,625||Hoima District||31.34 x 1.44||Africa/Kampala|
|Lugazi||35,036||Butambala District||32.92 x 0.38||Africa/Kampala|
|Masindi||31,486||Masindi District||31.72 x 1.67||Africa/Kampala|
|Pallisa||30,745||Pallisa District||33.71 x 1.15||Africa/Kampala|
|Nebbi||30,354||Nebbi District||31.10 x 2.48||Africa/Kampala|
|Adjumani||28,700||Adjumani District||31.81 x 3.36||Africa/Kampala|
|Paidha||28,348||30.98 x 2.42||Africa/Kampala|
|Luwero||28,338||Luwero District||32.47 x 0.85||Africa/Kampala|
|Wobulenzi||24,415||Luwero District||32.51 x 0.73||Africa/Kampala|