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Country Turkmenistan



Turkmenistan

Independent republic in Central Asia, N of Afghanistan and Iran, S of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, and E of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Ashgabat.

The region passed under many rulers in its early history, including the Achaemenid Persians, the Arabs in the eighth century a.d., Seljuk Turks in the 11th, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane in the 13th and 14th centuries, and the Uzbeks. Russian military conquest began in 1869 and was completed in 1881, after which the region was included in the former Transcaspian region. During the Russian Revolution fighting broke out between the Bolsheviks and the Transcaspian provincial government, resulting in the fall of Ashgabat to the Red Army in July 1919. Turkmenistan then became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1925. In 1991, a referendum for independence from the Soviet Union was passed, and Turkmenistan became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Saparmurat Niyazov became president and has made himself the object of a nationwide personality cult. Niyazov was “reelected” unopposed in 1992 and 1994, and in 1999 was voted “President for life” by the parliament. The former Turkmen Communist Party has continued to hold power, while opposition to the regime has been suppressed.

The government has attempted economic reform, and has attracted some foreign investment, especially in exploiting the country’s rich gas reserves (including a natural-gas pipeline to Iran). In 1994 Turkmenistan became the first Central Asian republic to join NATO’s Partnership for Peace program. In 1995 Turkmenistan signed 23 bilateral agreements with Russia.

Turkmenistan Images


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Turkmenistan: Top Cities

Ashgabat 727,700 Ahal Welayaty 58.38 x 37.95 Asia/Ashgabat
Turkmenabat 234,817 Lebap Welayaty 63.58 x 39.07 Asia/Ashgabat
Dasoguz 166,500 Dasoguz Welayaty 59.97 x 41.84 Asia/Ashgabat
Mary 114,680 Mary Welayaty 61.83 x 37.59 Asia/Ashgabat
Balkanabat 87,822 Balkan Welayaty 54.37 x 39.51 Asia/Ashgabat
Bayramaly 75,797 Mary Welayaty 62.17 x 37.62 Asia/Ashgabat
Turkmenbasy 68,292 Balkan Welayaty 52.96 x 40.02 Asia/Ashgabat
Tejen 67,294 Ahal Welayaty 60.51 x 37.38 Asia/Ashgabat
Buzmeyin 39,481 Ahal Welayaty 58.21 x 38.05 Asia/Ashgabat
Gowurdak 34,745 Lebap Welayaty 66.05 x 37.81 Asia/Ashgabat
Atamyrat 33,242 Lebap Welayaty 65.21 x 37.84 Asia/Ashgabat
Yoloten 32,706 62.36 x 37.30 Asia/Ashgabat
Koeneuergench 30,000 59.15 x 42.33 Asia/Ashgabat
Annau 27,526 58.52 x 37.89 Asia/Ashgabat
Gumdag 24,312 Balkan Welayaty 54.59 x 39.21 Asia/Ashgabat
Baherden 22,991 Ahal Welayaty 57.43 x 38.44 Asia/Ashgabat
Boldumsaz 21,159 59.67 x 42.13 Asia/Ashgabat
Gazanjyk 21,090 Balkan Welayaty 55.52 x 39.24 Asia/Ashgabat
Gazojak 21,021 61.40 x 41.19 Asia/Ashgabat
Kaka 18,545 59.61 x 37.35 Asia/Ashgabat
Seydi 17,762 62.91 x 39.48 Asia/Ashgabat
Sayat 17,762 Lebap Welayaty 63.88 x 38.78 Asia/Ashgabat
Tagta 16,635 59.92 x 41.65 Asia/Ashgabat
Farap 14,503 Lebap Welayaty 63.61 x 39.17 Asia/Ashgabat
Akdepe 14,177 59.38 x 42.06 Asia/Ashgabat
Murgab 13,199 61.97 x 37.50 Asia/Ashgabat
Gyzylarbat 12,000 Balkan Welayaty 56.28 x 38.98 Asia/Ashgabat
Serhetabat 5,200 Mary Welayaty 62.34 x 35.28 Asia/Ashgabat
Pewrize 3,000 58.09 x 37.92 Asia/Ashgabat