Country Tanzania


Lying on the E coast of Africa, the United Republic of Tanzania was formed by the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964. Julius Nyerere of Tanganyika became the new country’s president; and Sheik Abeid Amani Karune, Zanzibar’s leader, became his vice president. Tanzania emerged as a one-party state, and in 1967 its leaders announced their intention to guide the nation along a socialist developmental path. Much of the country’s industry and agriculture was nationalized.

Although sympathetic to Soviet and Chinese communism, Nyerere retained open relations with the United States. Massive Chinese aid built a rail line linking the Tanzanian port capital of Dar es Salaam with Lusaka, the inland capital of Zambia.

The seizure of power in neighboring Ugand a by Idi Amin in 1971 was bitterly opposed by Tanzania.

Border clashes and constant invective between the two nations became commonplace. Disputes over roads and boundaries with Kenya and Zambia also caused friction. In 1976 President Nyerere, then serving a fourth term, opened Tanzania’s borders to guerrilla fighters seeking the overthrow of white-controlled Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe. The simmering dispute with Amin blazed into full-scale war in 1978 when Ugand an troops invaded northeastern Tanzania. A counteroffensive captured Kampala, Ugand a, in 1979 and caused Amin to flee to Libya. A Tanzanian military presence in Ugand a was maintained until elections in December 1980. Troops were withdrawn in May 1981.

By the 1980s it was clear that Nyerere’s economic policies had failed. Continual cycles of alternating floods and droughts reduced agricultural production and exports. In 1985 after Nyerere resigned as he had promised the nation, Ali Hassan Mwinyi, president of Zanzibar, became head of the one-party government. He began an economic recovery program, financial and economic reforms, and the encouragement of foreign investment. In 1992 the constitution was amended to allow opposition parties. The 1995 multiparty elections were won by Benjamin William Mkapa of the ruling party, but were considered flawed by international observers.

In 1996 the capital was officially transferred from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, although many government bodies remain in the old capital. In the 1990s Tanzania was host to more than 300,000 refugees from the war in neighboring Burundi. In 2000 Mkapa was reelected in another election with observed irregularities.

Tanzania Images


Tanzania: Top Cities

Dar es Salaam 2,698,652 Dar es Salaam Region 39.27 x -6.82 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Mwanza 436,801 Mwanza Region 32.90 x -2.52 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Zanzibar 403,658 Zanzibar Urban/West Region 39.20 x -6.16 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Arusha 341,136 Arusha Region 36.68 x -3.37 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Mbeya 291,649 Mbeya Region 33.45 x -8.90 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Morogoro 250,902 Morogoro Region 37.67 x -6.82 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Tanga 224,876 Tanga Region 39.10 x -5.07 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Dodoma 180,541 Dodoma Region 35.74 x -6.17 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Kigoma 164,268 Kigoma Region 29.63 x -4.88 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Moshi 156,959 Kilimanjaro Region 37.33 x -3.35 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Tabora 145,292 Tabora Region 32.80 x -5.02 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Songea 126,449 Ruvuma Region 35.65 x -10.68 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Musoma 121,119 Mara Region 33.80 x -1.50 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Iringa 111,820 Iringa Region 35.70 x -7.77 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Katumba 108,558 Mbeya Region 33.62 x -9.23 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Shinyanga 107,362 Shinyanga Region 33.43 x -3.67 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Mtwara 96,602 Mtwara Region 40.18 x -10.27 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Ushirombo 95,052 Shinyanga Region 31.96 x -3.49 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Kilosa 91,889 Morogoro Region 36.98 x -6.83 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Sumbawanga 89,161 Rukwa Region 31.62 x -7.97 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Bagamoyo 82,426 Pwani 38.90 x -6.43 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Mpand a 73,338 Rukwa Region 31.04 x -6.37 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Bukoba 70,628 Kagera Region 31.81 x -1.33 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Singida 62,432 Singida Region 34.75 x -4.82 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Uyovu 60,849 Shinyanga Region 31.53 x -3.28 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Makumbako 53,003 Iringa Region 34.83 x -8.85 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Buseresere 52,870 Kagera Region 31.87 x -3.02 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Bunda 50,944 Mara Region 33.87 x -2.05 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Merelani 50,000 Arusha Region 36.98 x -3.56 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Katoro 49,691 Kagera Region 31.90 x -3.02 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam