Southern end of the earth’s axis, on Antarctica, lying at 90°S latitude and 0° longitude so that from it the only direction is north. The South Magnetic Pole was found in 1909 by two British geologists, Sir T.
W. E. David and Sir Douglas Dawson, who located it at 72° 15 S and 155°16 E. That same year another Briton, Sir Ernest Shackleton, reached a point only 97 miles from the South Pole. The race to be the first here was won by Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian. He reached the pole on December 14, 1911. He was followed on January 18, 1912, by Robert F. Scott of England who, with his four companions, died on the return trip. On November 29, 1929, Richard E. Byrd and Bernt Balchen of the United States were the first to fly over the pole. As scientific exploration of Antarctica increased, U.S. Operation Deep Freeze of 1955–56 established a number of stations, one of which was at the pole and was supplied entirely by air. In 1958 a British Commonwealth expedition led by Vivian Fuchs accomplished the first complete crossing of the continent by land , going by way of the pole.