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Country Philippines



Philippines

Nation in the SW Pacific Ocean, off SE Asia, occupying the Philippine Archipelago and the smaller Sulu Archipelago to the SE. It consists of over 7,000 island s in all, of which 11 account for 95 percent of the land and most of the population. Called Filipinos, the inhabitants are mostly of the Malay group. The first inhabitants were Negritos, Negroid pygmies who are thought to have migrated from Borneo, Sumatra, and Malaya approximately 30,000 years ago; they were followed later by Malayans. In the 14th century Arab traders introduced Islam. Europeans first reached the island s in 1521 in the course of the roundthe- world voyage of Ferdinand Magellan for Spain. Spanish conquest began in 1564; and Manila, now the capital, was founded in 1571.

Between 1600 and 1663 there were wars with the Dutch; the Moros of the island s continued to resist Spain; and Manila was captured and held by the British in 1762–63. Spain kept control until 1896 when Spanish oppression sparked a revolt. In 1898 the Spanish-American War began, stemming from American concern over Spanish rule of Cuba, and on May 1 George Dewey’s U.S. fleet defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. Meanwhile, the Filipinos were successful on land . In December a treaty ending the war ceded the Philippines to the United States. Filipinos who had fought for freedom refused their new rulers and carried on a ferocious guerrilla war against the United States until 1901, when their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured.

A U.S. act of 1916 provided some self-rule, while a further law in 1934 promised independence in 1946 and established the Commonwealth of the Philippines on November 15, 1935. On December 8, 1941, Japan invaded the Philippines and held sway over the island s until U.S. forces land ed on Leyte on October 20, 1944. By July 5, 1945, the island s were free; and independence came, as promised, on July 4, 1946. However, communist-dominated guerrillas, the Hukalahap, known as Huks, fought the government until 1954. They rose again in 1969; and there has also been fighting with the Moros, Muslim separatists, which continued into 1982. Although presumably a democracy, the Philippine nation had, in effect, one-man rule from 1972 through 1986 under dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos, who was first elected president in 1965. In 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino was assassinated at the Manila Airport leading to widespread unrest against the government. In 1986, his widow, Corazon Aquino, ran against Marcos, and after a fraud-filled election, took office as president after a “People Power” revolution forced Marcos to flee the country.

Aquino’s government suffered under a poor economy and high expectations from the people. There were attempts at coups by the military, and political pressure from some factions to close the American military bases. The bases including Clark Air Force Base and Subic Bay Naval Base were closed by 1992. The Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption (which was a major factor in the base closings) and the base closings themselves, along with a number of major typhoons, had a major negative impact on Filipino economic growth in the 1990s. Guerrilla warfare by the Moro National Liberation Front led to a series of peace accords that created an autonomous region in the southern island of Mindanao. In 1992, Aquino did not run for reelection and was succeeded by her former army chief of staff Fidel Ramos. In 1998, Joseph Marcelo Estrada, a former movie actor, was elected president. In 2001 Estrada was stripped of the presidency on charges of corruption. Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in as president, and was reelected in 2004, but the election was marred by violence and voter fraud. The Moro rebels in the Muslin south continue to fight against the government, with the United States providing assistance to the government after the 9-11 terrorist attacks in 2001.

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Philippines: Top Cities

Manila 10,444,527 National Capital Region 120.98 x 14.60 Asia/Manila
Davao 1,212,504 Davao 125.61 x 7.07 Asia/Manila
Cebu City 798,634 Central Visayas 123.89 x 10.32 Asia/Manila
Antipolo 549,543 Calabarzon 121.18 x 14.59 Asia/Manila
Zamboanga 457,623 122.07 x 6.91 Asia/Manila
Bacolod City 454,898 Western Visayas 122.95 x 10.67 Asia/Manila
Mansilingan 454,150 122.98 x 10.63 Asia/Manila
Cagayan de Oro 445,103 124.65 x 8.48 Asia/Manila
Dasmarinas 441,876 Calabarzon 120.94 x 14.33 Asia/Manila
Iloilo 387,681 122.56 x 10.70 Asia/Manila
San Jose del Monte 357,828 Central Luzon 121.05 x 14.81 Asia/Manila
Bacoor 356,974 Calabarzon 120.93 x 14.46 Asia/Manila
Calamba 316,612 Calabarzon 121.17 x 14.21 Asia/Manila
Iligan City 312,323 Soccsksargen 124.40 x 8.25 Asia/Manila
Angeles City 299,391 Central Luzon 120.58 x 15.15 Asia/Manila
Santol 298,976 120.57 x 15.16 Asia/Manila
Mand aue City 288,892 123.92 x 10.32 Asia/Manila
Cainta 283,172 Calabarzon 121.12 x 14.58 Asia/Manila
Baguio 272,714 Cordillera Administrative Region 120.59 x 16.42 Asia/Manila
San Pedro 270,216 Calabarzon 121.05 x 14.36 Asia/Manila
Mantampay 265,032 124.22 x 8.17 Asia/Manila
San Fernand o 251,248 Central Luzon 120.69 x 15.03 Asia/Manila
Libertad 250,353 125.50 x 8.94 Asia/Manila
Lapu-Lapu City 241,374 123.95 x 10.31 Asia/Manila
Batangas 237,370 121.06 x 13.76 Asia/Manila
Taytay 231,460 Calabarzon 121.14 x 14.57 Asia/Manila
Lucena 228,758 121.62 x 13.93 Asia/Manila
Cabanatuan 220,250 120.97 x 15.49 Asia/Manila
Olongapo 220,021 120.28 x 14.83 Asia/Manila
Binangonan 219,204 Calabarzon 121.19 x 14.46 Asia/Manila