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Country Nicaragua



Nicaragua

Nation of Central America, with coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It takes its name from an Indian chief. El Salvador and Honduras are to the N and Costa Rica is to the S. The Spanish conquistador Gil Gonzalez de Avila conquered Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica in 1522. The next year Francisco Fernand ez de Cordoba was sent to deprive Gonzalez de Avila of his claim to Nicaragua, and in 1524 he founded Granada and Leon. Under Spanish rule, Nicaragua was part of the captaincy general of Guatemala. In 1678 England declared a protectorate over the Mosquito Coast, the eastern coast of the country, and made Bluefields the capital. Nicaragua won independence from Spain in 1821 and with the other Central American nations—Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica—became part of the Mexican Empire, over which Augustin de Iturbide ruled briefly as Emperor Augustin I. Between 1825 and 1838 the five nations formed the Central American Confederation, with Manuel Jose Arce as the first president. Rivalries brought about dissolution of the confederation in spite of the efforts of a liberal dictator, Francisco Morazan.

The British occupied the town of San Juan Del Norte (Greytown) on the Mosquito Coast in 1848, but a treaty of 1860 with Nicaragua gave this area autonomy. Later, in 1894, President Jose Santos Zelaya seized the region by force. As early as 1826 the United States expressed interest in building a canal across Nicaragua. No canal was built, but in 1851 Cornelius Vand erbilt, the American shipping and railroad magnate, opened a route from the Atlantic coast to California that included a system of land transit across Nicaragua. An American adventurer, William Walker, set out in 1855 to conquer Nicaragua, which he did, and proclaimed himself president in 1856. The next year he was ousted by other Central American countries, assisted by Vand erbilt.

The country enjoyed a period of quiet from 1857 to 1909, most of the time under conservative rule. In 1912, however, U.S. Marines were sent to aid the conservative side in a civil war. They were opposed by guerrilla forces led by Augusto Cesar Sand ino until the U.S. withdrawal in 1933. The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty of 1916 gave the United States the right to build a canal, but the treaty was terminated in 1970. In 1936, with U.S. backing, Anastasio Somoza killed Sand ino and overthrew the democratically elected president Juan Batista Sacassa. Somoza became the nation’s dictator; he and two sons turned the country, for practical purposes, into the private property of the Somoza family, ruling by terror and repression until a revolution in July 1979 destroyed their power. The revolution was broad based and included factions from all parts of the political spectrum, including the Sand inistas, named for the guerrilla leader.

Though the original revolutionary government included all these factions, it has since late 1980 moved toward full Sand inista control but includes members of the Roman Catholic clergy. They were accused by U.S. officials of being communist-oriented and of receiving military aid from the USSR and Cuba. The United States has sought to isolate the country diplomatically and economically and to overthrow the regime. The Sand inistas, however, assert they favor pluralistic democracy and negotiated settlements to regional disputes. In 1981, the United States, suspended economic aid and began supporting counterrevolutionary military forces, or contras. After the U.S. Congress acted to cut off aid to the contras, the government continued to covertly support the Nicaraguan anti-Sand inistas, using revenue from arms sales to Iran. The United States continued to exert pressure on the Sand inistas, illegally mining Nicaragua’s principal export harbors in 1984, and instituting a trade embargo in 1985. Elections in 1984 confirmed the Sand inista leader Daniel Ortega Saavedra, as president. Although the regime received substantial Soviet economic aid, the U.S. embargo destroyed the economy as the aid petered out with Soviet troubles at home.

In 1990 elections, held under a Central American peace initiative, the Sand inistas were defeated by an opposition coalition, and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, a political moderate, became the new president. The United States lifted its trade embargo, and the Chamorro government tried to revive the economy and promote reconciliation among the factions. In October of 1998 Nicaragua was devastated by Hurricane Mitch, which killed more than 4,000. In 2003 the new president Enrique Bolanos Geyer accused his predecessor of corruption, leading to a split in the governing Liberal Party. Managua is the capital and largest city; Leon is the second largest.

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Nicaragua: Top Cities

Managua 973,087 Departamento de Managua -86.25 x 12.13 America/Managua
Leon 144,538 Departamento de Leon -86.88 x 12.44 America/Managua
Masaya 130,113 Departamento de Masaya -86.09 x 11.97 America/Managua
Tipitapa 127,153 Departamento de Managua -86.10 x 12.20 America/Managua
Chinand ega 126,387 Departamento de Chinand ega -87.13 x 12.63 America/Managua
Matagalpa 109,089 Departamento de Matagalpa -85.92 x 12.93 America/Managua
Esteli 96,422 Departamento de Esteli -86.35 x 13.09 America/Managua
Granada 89,409 Departamento de Granada -85.96 x 11.93 America/Managua
Ciudad Sand ino 70,013 Departamento de Managua -86.34 x 12.16 America/Managua
Juigalpa 54,731 Departamento de Chontales -85.36 x 12.11 America/Managua
El Viejo 53,504 Departamento de Chinand ega -87.17 x 12.66 America/Managua
Nueva Guinea 52,929 Region Autonoma Atlantico Sur -84.46 x 11.69 America/Managua
Jinotega 51,073 Departamento de Jinotega -86.00 x 13.09 America/Managua
Bluefields 44,373 Region Autonoma Atlantico Sur -83.76 x 12.01 America/Managua
Diriamba 35,008 Departamento de Carazo -86.24 x 11.86 America/Managua
Ocotal 33,928 Departamento de Nueva Segovia -86.48 x 13.63 America/Managua
Puerto Cabezas 33,635 Region Autonoma Atlantico Norte -83.39 x 14.04 America/Managua
Chichigalpa 33,137 Departamento de Chinand ega -87.03 x 12.58 America/Managua
Rivas 30,293 Departamento de Rivas -85.83 x 11.44 America/Managua
San Rafael del Sur 29,836 Departamento de Managua -86.44 x 11.85 America/Managua
Jinotepe 29,507 Departamento de Carazo -86.20 x 11.85 America/Managua
Boaco 29,046 Departamento de Boaco -85.66 x 12.47 America/Managua
Nagarote 26,270 Departamento de Leon -86.56 x 12.27 America/Managua
Jalapa 24,037 Departamento de Nueva Segovia -86.12 x 13.92 America/Managua
La Paz Centro 23,481 Departamento de Leon -86.68 x 12.34 America/Managua
San Marcos 23,347 Departamento de Carazo -86.20 x 11.91 America/Managua
Masatepe 21,452 Departamento de Masaya -86.14 x 11.92 America/Managua
Nand aime 20,810 Departamento de Granada -86.05 x 11.76 America/Managua
Rama 20,456 Region Autonoma Atlantico Sur -84.22 x 12.16 America/Managua
Somoto 20,316 Departamento de Madriz -86.58 x 13.48 America/Managua