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Country Laos



Laos

Small land locked country in the center of Indochina whose history has been continually enmeshed with the territorial ambitions of neighboring Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand , and Myanmar. During the fifth century a.d. Laos’s primitive tribal inhabitants came under the influence of the Cambodian Khmer Empire. They were gradually supplanted by settlers from the southwestern Chinese kingdom of Nanchao. During the 12th and 13th centuries Tai immigrants founded the principality of Muong Swa, later known as Luang Prabang. Fa Ngum, an accomplished general who had the aid of the Cambodian Khmers, founded the first Laotian state. From 1353 to 1371 Lan Xang (The Kingdom of a Million Elephants) expand ed under his leadership to cover all of present Laos and most of northern Thailand . Lan Xang prospered quietly until the reign of Photisarath (1520–47) brought it into conflict with both Burma and Siam. After Photisarath’s death, his son moved the capital from Luang Prabang to Vientiane and fought continuously with the Burmese until his death in 1571. The Burmese then seized the offensive and laid waste to the country. The ensuing anarchy gripped Lan Xang for 60 years. It reestablished itself as an orderly and powerful state with the ascension of Souligna-Vongsa to the throne in 1637. After his death, a nephew accepted the help of a Vietnamese army to seize the throne and attempted to rule as a Vietnamese vassal. Other members of the royal family successfully resisted this move, and Lan Xang disintegrated into three small contending kingdoms. In the north, Luang Prabang and Vientiane declared themselves independent in 1707, and they were followed in 1713 by the southern portion of the now defunct Lan Xang, which declared itself the kingdom of Champassak. Divided into three small feuding states, Laos was unable to maintain its independence in the face of Siamese and Burmese expansion in western Indochina.

Vientiane fell to Siamese forces in 1778 and became a subject state. Luang Prabang was conquered by the Burmese in 1752 but came under Siamese rule in 1778. That same year Champassak was successfully invaded and made a dependency of Siam. Siamese authority was unsuccessfully contested by Chao Anou, who ruled in Vientiane from 1809 to 1824. Siamese forces defeated his armies, sacked his capital, and annexed Vientiane as a Siamese province. Siam moved to consolidate its gains, garrisoning the captured states and pressing Vietnam, now a French colonial possession. France moved aggressively to protect its growing Indochina interests and by 1904 had compelled Siam to grant it control of Laos. France organized its new acquisition as the Protectorate of Laos but exercised little control. In World War II Japan forced the Vichy government to return Laos to Thailand and proclaimed Laotian independence.

After the war France regained major control of Laos, but the country was split into opposing factions with an anti-Japanese group centered on the Luang Prabang court and an anti-French faction in Vientiane. In 1950 the anti-French Pathet Lao was formed and successfully joined the Viet Minh of Vietnam in opposition to French rule. The Geneva Conference ending the Indochina War attempted to set up a neutral Laos as a stabilizing buffer state, but the next 20 years found continual turmoil with a rightist, U.S.- backed government in Vientiane in conflict with the North Vietnamese–supported Pathet Lao. During the Vietnam War eastern Laos supplied North Vietnam with its vital supply route to the S, the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Although a coalition government was formed in April 1974, in 1975 the Pathet Lao seized full control of Laos. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic was installed in December 1975, and since then Laos has been economically and philosophically allied with Vietnam. Vietnamese forces used the country as a staging area for their intervention in Kampuchea in 1979, and Laotian troops aided in the overthrow of the Pol Pot regime there.

In the early 1990s Laos instituted economic reforms, aband oning communism for a capitalist market economy, but the Communist Pathet Lao retained tight political control, and political dissent was harshly suppressed. Laos has improved its relations with its neighbors, and in 1997 Laos was admitted to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

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Laos: Top Cities

Vientiane 196,731 Kampheng Nakhon Viangchan 102.60 x 17.97 Asia/Vientiane
Pakxe 88,332 Khoueng Champasak 105.78 x 15.12 Asia/Vientiane
Savannakhet 66,553 Khoueng Savannakhet 104.75 x 16.55 Asia/Vientiane
Mamoudzou 54,831 Mamoudzou 45.23 x -12.78 Indian/Mayotte
Louangphrabang 47,378 Luang Prabang Province 102.13 x 19.89 Asia/Vientiane
Xam Nua 38,992 Khoueng Houaphan 104.04 x 20.42 Asia/Vientiane
Ban Phonsavan 37,507 Khoueng Xiangkhoang 103.18 x 19.46 Asia/Vientiane
Thakhek 26,200 Khoueng Khammouan 104.83 x 17.41 Asia/Vientiane
Muang Xai 25,000 Khoueng Oudomxai 101.98 x 20.70 Asia/Vientiane
Muang Vangviang 25,000 Khoueng Viangchan 102.45 x 18.93 Asia/Vientiane
Muang Pakxan 21,967 Khoueng Bolikhamxai 103.66 x 18.38 Asia/Vientiane
Koungou 18,118 Koungou 45.20 x -12.73 Indian/Mayotte
Ban Houakhoua 15,500 100.45 x 20.25 Asia/Vientiane
Khong 15,000 Khoueng Champasak 105.85 x 14.12 Asia/Vientiane
Dzaoudzi 14,141 Dzaoudzi 45.25 x -12.78 Indian/Mayotte
Phongsali 13,500 Khoueng Phongsali 102.11 x 21.68 Asia/Vientiane
Xaignabouli 13,500 Khoueng Xaignabouli 101.75 x 19.25 Asia/Vientiane
Champasak 12,994 Khoueng Champasak 105.87 x 14.88 Asia/Vientiane
Ban Houayxay 12,500 Khoueng Bokeo 100.41 x 20.28 Asia/Vientiane
Muang Phon-Hong 10,112 Khoueng Viangchan 102.42 x 18.49 Asia/Vientiane
Sada 9,832 Sada 45.10 x -12.85 Indian/Mayotte
Pamand zi 9,071 Pamand zi 45.28 x -12.79 Indian/Mayotte
Band raboua 7,880 Band raboua 45.12 x -12.70 Indian/Mayotte
Mtsamboro 7,724 Mtsamboro 45.07 x -12.70 Indian/Mayotte
Tsingoni 7,602 Tsingoni 45.10 x -12.79 Indian/Mayotte
Ouangani 7,272 Ouangani 45.14 x -12.85 Indian/Mayotte
Chiconi 7,204 Chiconi 45.11 x -12.83 Indian/Mayotte
Band rele 6,350 Band rele 45.19 x -12.91 Indian/Mayotte
Chirongui 6,173 Chirongui 45.15 x -12.93 Indian/Mayotte
Salavan 5,521 Khoueng Salavan 106.42 x 15.72 Asia/Vientiane