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Country Hungary



Hungary

Republic, central Europe, bounded on the N by Czech Republic and Slovakia, on the NE by the Ukraine, on the E and SE by Romania, on the S by Serbia and Montenegro and Croatia, on the SW by Slovenia, and on the W by Austria. A small land locked country, Hungary is largely a huge fertile plain that supports the agriculture that is a mainstay of a rapidly industrializing economy. Hungary was dominated by the major power concerns of the USSR and has long since aband oned the important role it once held in central Europe.

Hungary was held by the Roman Empire as the provinces of Pannonia and part of Dacia until the fourth century a.d. In 892 the Carolingian emperor Arnulf invited a barbarian horde of Magyars to leave the western Russian steppe and help him conquer the empire of Moravia. Led by Arpad, the Magyars speedily secured the entire central basin, destroying the Moravian Empire and conquering Pannonia. Hungary was brought into the mainstream of the Western Christian world by Stephen I in a.d. 1000. He converted Hungary to Christianity and , as a result, was canonized in 1083. St. Stephen’s successors constantly quarreled over the throne, but the country prospered and was a major European state by 1200, with over 2 million inhabitants. In 1222 the nobility forced the weak king Andrew II to sign the Golden Bull, Hungary’s Magna Carta. This signalled a constitutional commitment to liberty, but in actuality all ethnic minorities except the Magyars were treated as inferiors, an attitude that accounts for many of the rebellions and uprisings studding Hungary’s history.

Hungary’s prosperity was shattered by a yearlong invasion of Mongols in 1241. Half the population was killed or dispersed. Recovery was swift, but by 1301 the national Arpad dynasty had ended, and Hungary came under the French Angevin dynasty. The only national ruler after the Arpads was the great Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458–90) who made Hungary the greatest power in central Europe and temporarily secured it against the threat of the expand ing Ottoman Empire. In 1526 a huge Turkish army crushed the Hungarians at Mohacs. Hungary was then split into three parts. The Turks occupied the central part of the kingdom, including the capital of Buda. Transylvania became a separate state and the Austrian Hapsburgs controlled the western part of the Kingdom. This partition lasted until the end of the 17th century, when the Turks were expelled and Hungary came wholly under Hapsburg rule.

The country recovered economically under the Hapsburgs, but in the early 19th century intense Magyar nationalism developed, and in 1848 a group of reformers led by Louis Kossuth declared Hungary’s independence. Austria put down the uprising with Russian military aid. In 1867 Hungary became linked with Austria in the Dual Monarchy of the Austro- Hungarian Empire and remained so until its defeat in World War I. The Treaty of Trianon awarded major portions of the country to Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. After defeat in World War II, Hungary became a satellite of the Soviet Union. A revolt was brutally crushed by Soviet troops in 1956. Since then the country has been peaceful and moderately prosperous, following the Soviet political line and moving toward a mixed economy.

In 1988, reformists took control of the government. In August of 1989, Hungary opened its borders to Austria, which began the fall of the “Iron Curtain.” Thousand s of East Germans escaped to the West through Hungary. In October of 1989, the name of the nation was changed from the People’s Republic of Hungary to the Republic of Hungary, which signaled the change from a centrally planned socialist dictatorship to a market economy with free elections. In 1990, there were free elections and the beginning of the privatization of state industries. In 1991, the last Russian troops left the country. In 1998 Hungary joined NATO, and in 2004 Hungary joined the European Union. Hungary has passed a number of laws and referenda giving rights and or citizenship to ethnic Hungarians in neighboring countries. These measures have been criticized in neighboring Slovakia and Romania where sizable ethnic Hungarian populations reside.

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Hungary: Top Cities

Budapest 1,696,128 Budapest fovaros 19.04 x 47.50 Europe/Budapest
Debrecen 204,124 Hajdu-Bihar 21.63 x 47.53 Europe/Budapest
Nagyvarad 201,000 21.93 x 47.06 Europe/Bucharest
Miskolc 172,637 Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen 20.78 x 48.10 Europe/Budapest
Szeged 164,883 Csongrad megye 20.15 x 46.25 Europe/Budapest
Pecs 156,649 Baranya megye 18.23 x 46.08 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XI. keruelet 139,049 Budapest fovaros 19.04 x 47.48 Europe/Budapest
Gyor 128,265 Gyor-Moson-Sopron 17.64 x 47.68 Europe/Budapest
Budapest III. keruelet 123,723 Budapest fovaros 19.05 x 47.54 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XIV. keruelet 120,148 Budapest fovaros 19.11 x 47.52 Europe/Budapest
Nyiregyhaza 116,298 Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg 21.72 x 47.96 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XIII. keruelet 113,531 Budapest fovaros 19.08 x 47.53 Europe/Budapest
Kecskemet 109,847 Bacs-Kiskun 19.69 x 46.91 Europe/Budapest
Szekesfehervar 101,600 Fejer 18.41 x 47.19 Europe/Budapest
Budapest IV. keruelet 98,374 Budapest fovaros 19.09 x 47.56 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XVIII. keruelet 93,225 Budapest fovaros 19.18 x 47.44 Europe/Budapest
Budapest II. keruelet 88,729 Budapest fovaros 19.03 x 47.51 Europe/Budapest
Budapest VIII. keruelet 82,222 Budapest fovaros 19.07 x 47.49 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XV. keruelet 80,218 Budapest fovaros 19.12 x 47.56 Europe/Budapest
Szombathely 79,534 Vas 16.62 x 47.23 Europe/Budapest
Budapest X. keruelet 79,270 Budapest fovaros 19.16 x 47.48 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XVII. keruelet 78,250 Budapest fovaros 19.25 x 47.48 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XXI. keruelet 76,339 Budapest fovaros 19.07 x 47.43 Europe/Budapest
Paradsasvar 76,000 Heves megye 19.98 x 47.91 Europe/Budapest
Szolnok 75,474 Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok 20.20 x 47.18 Europe/Budapest
Tatabanya 70,541 Komarom-Esztergom 18.39 x 47.58 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XVI. keruelet 68,484 Budapest fovaros 19.17 x 47.51 Europe/Budapest
Kaposvar 67,746 Somogy megye 17.80 x 46.37 Europe/Budapest
Bekescsaba 65,206 Bekes megye 21.10 x 46.68 Europe/Budapest
Budapest XX. keruelet 63,371 Budapest fovaros 19.10 x 47.44 Europe/Budapest